Water Source Heat Pumps

Water source heat pumps are similar like air source heat pump only difference is that they make use water instead of air.

In water source heat pump water works as the source of heat energy. In these heat pumps water sources like rivers, lakes or streams are used. Pipes are submerged inside these water sources. The heat generated from water is much higher than air or ground.

Water source heat pumps are easy to operate and maintain. They are more energy efficient as they make use of the water temperature instead of using air temperature which fluctuates continuously. The heat is pumped to the house during winter and pulled outside during summer.

Installation cost of water source heat pump is less than the geothermal heat pumps. Water source heat pump is of great advantage for the people living near the water body.

Types of water source heat pumps

Based on the source of water used in the system these heat pumps can be “closed loop” or “open loop”.

• Closed loop system

Though they have high installation cost but they avoid the risk of corrosion. Closed loop system is the mixture of water and anti freeze to a water source. This mixture is passed through the pipes/panels absorbing energy from the water.

Open loop system

In open loop system ponds, wells or springs work as the source of water. In this system water is piped into the system directly from the water source. Refrigerant generates the heat from the water and then water is returned back to the source. This system is least expensive to install. There are certain issues with lake debris and mineral deposits clogging lines.

Working of water source pump

Water source heat pump transfers heat between lakes and your houses. Solar energy is generated in the water sources, these pumps extract the heat energy generated in the water. They also generate the heat by cycling the water throughout the system of pipes. This heat generated is carried throughout the house.

The system is reversed during the summer. Heat is carried from the house and transferred to the cool water outside. These provide higher efficiency in cooling rather than in heating.

Refrigerant works as the medium to transfer heat. In this fluid heat is boiled and the resulting gas the resulting gas is passed to the heat exchanger coils, where it condenses, releasing its latent heat.


• Maintenance cost of water source heat pumps are less and are highly durable.
• Temperature of river is higher than air during winter so water source heat pumps have higher energy efficiency.
• Well designed water source heat pumps can accumulate large amount of water so the rate of transfer will be more
• Installing a water source is less expensive than installing a ground source.
• Flow of water source provides constant energy replacement
• Water source heat pumps have excellent control over humidity.


• Use of water source increases the risk of scaling.
• If ph value water is not neutral corrosion resistant pumps are required.
• Large area is required for closed loop source